Skip to content

The California Teachers Study is a prospective cohort study initiated in 1995–1996 using mailed, self-administered questionnaires. This recently published sub-study compared mortality in 9,785 participants who had a surgical menopause and 32,219 who had a natural menopause [1]. All-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality rates were obtained from three Californian data banks and compared to menopausal hormone therapy (HT) use. 


Among participants with bilateral oophorectomy aged < 45 years at menopause, relative risks (95% confidence interval) for death were 0.86 (0.74–1.00), 0.85 (0.66–1.11) and 0.91 (0.67–1.23) for all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality, respectively. For those over age 45, the corresponding data were 0.87 (0.80–0.94), 0.83 (0.71–0.96) and 0.84 (0.72–0.98). The association between bilateral oophorectomy and mortality did not differ by baseline status of hormone use. The authors concluded that surgical menopause due to bilateral oophorectomy vs. natural menopause does not increase all-cause, cardiovascular or cancer mortality.


  • Alastair and Alice MacLennan
    The Discipline of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, The University of Adelaide, South Australia


  1. Duan L, Xu X, Koebnick C, Lacey JV, et al. Bilateral oophorectomy is not associated with increased mortality: the California Teachers Study. Fertil Steril 2011 Nov 14. E-pub ahead of print.
  2. Rocca WA, Grossardt BR, de Andrade M, Malkasian GD, Melton U. Survival patterns after oophorectomy in premenopausal women: a population-based study. Lancet Oncol 2006;7:821-8.
  3. Parker WH, Broder MS, Chang E, et al. Ovarian conservation at the time of hysterectomy and long-term health outcomes in the Nurses Health Study. Obstet Gynecol 2009;113:1027-37.
International Menopause Society

Install International Menopause Society - DEV

Install this application on your home screen for quick and easy access when you’re on the go.

Just tap then “Add to Home Screen”