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Terauchi and colleagues [1] reported recently that, in Japanese peri- and postmenopausal women referred to a specialized Menopause Clinic for the treatment of climacteric symptoms, headaches were significantly associated with depression (odds ratio (OR) 1.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06–2.10), whereas nausea and numbness were significantly associated with anxiety (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.15–2.39; OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.05–1.84; and OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.23–1.50, respectively). The analysis by Fisher’s exact test revealed that the prevalence of all the six somatic symptoms investigated (nausea, dizziness, numbness, muscle and joint pains, tiredness, and headaches), as well as night sweats was significantly higher in women with depression and anxiety. Although nausea, dizziness, numbness, tiredness, night sweats and depression diagnosed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) showed a significant correlation with severe anxiety in the univariate logistic regression analysis, the only scores that were significant after adjustment in the multivariate logistic regression analysis with stepwise variable selection procedure were those for nausea (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.15–2.39; [i]p[/i] = 0.007), numbness (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.05–1.84; [i]p[/i] = 0.020), and depression (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.23–1.50; [i]p[/i] < 0.001). However, in contrast to all reports analyzing European and North American populations, there was no correlation between depression and the prevalence of hot flushes.

Author(s)

  • Martin Birkhäuser
    Professor Emeritus for Gynecological Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Berne, Switzerland

Citations

  1. Terauchi M, Hiramitsu S, Akiyoshi M, et al. Associations among depression, anxiety and somatic symptoms in peri- and postmenopausal women. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2013 Feb 4. Epub ahead of print
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23379427
  2. Lock M, Kauder P, Gilbert P. Cultural construction of the menopausal syndrome: the Japanese case. Maturitas 1988;10:317-32.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3265758
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    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12480376
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    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10810964
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    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12439097
  7. Juang KD, Wang SJ, Lu SR, Lee SJ, Fuh JL. Hot flashes are associated with psychological symptoms of anxiety and depression in peri- and post- but not premenopausal women. Maturitas 2005;52:11926.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16186074
  8. Cohen LS, Pasciullo E, Joffe H. Anxiety predicts reduction in menopausal vasomotor symptoms with hormonal and non-hormonal treatments. Poster presented at the 2008 North American Menopause Society Annual Meeting; September 24-27, 2008; Orlando, FL, USA.
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