Coffee and tea are widely consumed beverages in the world and their relationship with health has therefore been extensively studied, particularly for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We recently reported a prospective cohort study of 37,514 Dutch men and women, in which we investigated the relationship of coffee and tea consumption with coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke morbidity and mortality . At baseline (1993–1997), coffee and tea consumption were estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire and participants were then followed for occurrence of CVD through linkage with several registries. During the 13 years of follow-up, we identified 1881 incident cases of cardiovascular morbidity, of which 563 were caused by stroke and 1387 by CHD. In total, 1405 cases of all-cause mortality were documented, of which 70 were caused by stroke and 123 were caused by CHD. Coffee consumption was associated with CHD in a U-shaped manner, with the lowest hazard ratio (HR) of 0.79 for 2.1–3.0 cups/day (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65–0.96, [i]p[/i][-]trend[/-] = 0.01). An inverse relationship of tea consumption with CHD was observed, with the lowest HR of 0.64 for > 6.0 cups/day (95% CI 0.46–0.90, [i]p[/i][-]trend[/-] = 0.02). Coffee and tea consumption were not associated with risk of stroke. Albeit not significant, coffee tended to be associated with a reduced risk of CHD mortality (HR 0.64; 95% CI: 0.37–1.11; [i]p[/i][-]trend[/-] = 0.12) for 3.1–6.0 cups/day. Tea consumption was associated with risk of CHD mortality in a U-shaped manner with a HR of 0.55 for 3.1–6.0 cups/day (95% CI 0.38–0.97, [i]p[/i][-]trend[/-] = 0.03). Coffee or tea consumption was not associated with stroke and all-cause mortality. In summary, high tea consumption was associated with a reduced risk of CHD mortality. Our study also suggests a modest risk reduction for CHD mortality with moderate coffee consumption and confirmed the lower risk of CHD with coffee and tea consumption .
Joline W. J. Beulens and Yvonne T. van der Schouw
Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
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