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Looking at the cardiovascular system, it is clear that the heart has been extensively investigated and discussed in regard to the effects of menopause on the one hand, and hormone therapy (HT) on the other hand. But the area of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in this respect has received much less attention. In a new cross-sectional study on 887 women aged 52–81 years, reproductive parameters were obtained by standardized interviews, and PAD was assessed by measuring non-invasively the ankle-brachial index (using a cut-off value of 0.9) and by assessing the presence of claudication using the Edinburgh questionnaire [1]. The only significant associations with the presence of PAD were later age at menarche (> 15 years) compared to age at menarche between 12 and 15 years (odds ratio (OR) 0.48; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.24–0.98), and the presence of hot flushes (OR 2.09; 95% CI 1.11–3.92). Other reproductive parameters, such as parity, age at menopause, time since menopause, duration of fertility, ever use or current use of HT, ever use of oral contraceptives, history of hysterectomy, bilateral oophorectomy and depressive mood in relation to menopausal transition showed no significant association with PAD.

Author(s)

  • Amos Pines
    Department of Medicine T, Ichilov Hospital, Tel-Aviv, Israel

Citations

  1. Stöckl D, Döring A, Thorand B, et al. Reproductive factors and its association with peripheral arterial disease in women aged 5281 years: The KORA F4 study. Atherosclerosis 2013 Feb 5. Epub ahead of print.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23466069
  2. Szmuilowicz ED, Manson JE, Rossouw JE, et al. Vasomotor symptoms and cardiovascular events in postmenopausal women. Menopause 2011;18:60310.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21358352
  3. Rossouw JE, Prentice RL, Manson JE, et al. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and risk of cardiovascular disease by age and years since menopause. JAMA 2007;297:1465-77.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17405972
  4. Allison MA, Manson JE, Aragaki A, et al. Vasomotor symptoms and coronary artery calcium in postmenopausal women. Menopause 2010;17:1136-45.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20651617
  5. Vavra AK, Kibbe MR. Women and peripheral arterial disease. Womens Health (Lond Engl) 2009;5:669-83.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19863470
  6. Rockman CB, Maldonado TS, Jacobowitz GR, Adelman MA, Riles TS. Hormone replacement therapy is associated with a decreased prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in postmenopausal women. Ann Vasc Surg 2012;26:411-18.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22285341
  7. Mazhari R, Hsia J. Prevalence, clinical significance, and management of peripheral arterial disease in women: is there a role for postmenopausal hormone therapy? Vasc Health Risk Manag 2005;1:111-17.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17315397
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